Lemon is an old hybrid, possibly between the pomelo and citron, but for centuries this species has been self-propagating by cutting and grafting. The common name lemon can refer to both the plant and its fruit. The fruit is yellow outside and inside it is almost colourless, spherical and oval, often with a bump at the apex, pointed at the other end. The skin can be from very rough to smooth, more or less lined inside with a white spongy mass, called pith.
The most commonly used part of the fruit is the juice, which represents up to 50% of its weight, contains 50-80 grams / liter of citric acid, which gives the fruit the typical sour taste, and other different organic acids including malic acid and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The rind of the lemon can reach 40% of the total weight, another 3% is represented by the seeds. From its skin, popular for the production of candied fruit, can be also extracted essences and pectin. In several industries (spirits, confectionery, soft drinks) its properties are thoroughly exploited. In the food industry, for example, the essential oil of lemon is used as a flavoring.
From the medical point of view, the lemon is really valuable. Its juice is a haemostatic, disinfectant and it has also hypoglycaemic properties, thus lowers the level of sugar in the blood. Taken in controlled amounts it is a good adjuvant in the treatment of rheumatism and diseases of the liver. Lemon is indicated in aromatherapy as a refreshing, tonic for the circulation, bactericide, antiseptic, useful for lowering blood pressure, and a valuable ally to fight colds and flu.
Interdonato: this lemon, which is a hybrid between Citron and Lemon, grows along the east coast of Sicily between Messina and Catania. The fruit is generally of big dimension with elliptic shape and yellow colouring. Seeds are nearly absent.
Geima has recently achieved the IGP denomination for this variety.
The harvest begins by the end of September.
Femminello Primofiore: it is a good and fine lemon, with aromatic scent. It is very juicy and sour. This is an excellent ever-blooming variety, with its peculiar yellow colour. Its harvest period ranges from December to July.
Verdello: Verdello lemon is round, medium-small size, and its skin is thin and green, its pulp is juicy and less acid than other varieties. Its harvest period ranges from May to September.